Rachel Rayner is a primary mathematics adviser for HfL

One of the most fundamental learning theories to be implemented within any mastery classroom is the ‘CPA’ (Concrete, Pictorial, and Abstract) approach. It was first proposed by Jerome Bruner in 1966 as a means of scaffolding learning. The psychologist believes that the abstract nature of learning (and this is especially true in mathematics) is a “mystery” to many children. It, therefore, needs to be scaffolded by the use of effective representations. He saw that, when pupils used the CPA approach, they were able to build on each stage towards a fuller understanding of the concepts being learnt and, as such, the information and knowledge were internalised to a greater degree. This allowed the teacher to build upon this secure learning. Bruner, and others, demonstrated that each stage of the approach acts as a scaffold for subsequent and connected learning. Continue reading “The ‘CPA’ Approach”